88 THE FATE OF MAN the religion of a tribal god who has not yet become a universal deity. Or it is like paganism before the development of the philosophic idea of one God. Nationalism was foreign to the ideas of the Christian universalism of the Middle Ages : it is a product of modern history which has lost its sense of unity and is moving toward particularism. French Nationalism, for example, derives from the French Revolution, from the idea of the supremacy of the nation. The older aristocratic and monarchical France did not know nationalism in the sense in which it has arisen in the nine- teenth and twentieth centuries. It must be admitted that Nationalism, as one of the degrees of the mdividualization of being, has undoubted and positive value. Culture always had national character and roots. An international culture is impossible. Only technics are truly international and they have a strong internationalizing influence. Nationalism is a cultural and historic fact. It is an attitude toward facts, but it transforms a natural fact into 'an idol. Nationalism has no Christian roots and it is always in conflict with Christianity. But Christianity is certainly not cosmopolitan- ism, which is a unification of being, a denial of the individual degrees of being and the confirma- tion of abstract, in the place of concrete unity.